Cartilage is also defined together aneural and hypocellular tissue <3>, where common mechanisms of organization repair are not easily restored.

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From: Translational Regenerative Medicine, 2015

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Javad Parvizi MD, FRCS, ... Associate Editor, in High productivity Orthopaedics, 2010


Cartilage is a tough, semitransparent, elastic, flexible connective tissue consisting of cartilage cell scattered v a glycoprotein material that is strengthened by collagen fibers. There space no nerves or blood ship in cartilage, i m sorry is discovered in the joints, the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the throat, and also between vertebral disks.


The main purpose that cartilage is to provide a frame on which bone deposition might begin. Another important purpose of cartilage is come cover the surface of joints, allowing bones to slide over one another, for this reason reducing friction and preventing damage; it likewise acts together a shock absorber


Hyaline Cartilage: Hyaline cartilage is the most abundant type of cartilage. Hyaline cartilage is uncovered lining skeleton in joints (articular cartilage). That is likewise present within bones, serving as a center of ossification or bone growth. In addition, hyaline cartilage forms the embryonic skeleton.

Elastic Cartilage: Elastic cartilage (also referred to as yellow cartilage) is discovered in the pinna the the ear and several tubes, such together the wall surfaces of the auditory and eustachian canals and larynx. Elastic cartilage is similar to hyaline cartilage but contains elastic majority (elastin) scattered throughout the matrix. This gives a tissue that is stiff however elastic.

Fig. 39-1.

(From Ovale WK, Nahirey PC: Netter’s vital Histology. Philadelphia, Saunders, 2008.)

Fibrocartilage: Fibrocartilage (also called white cartilage) is a dedicated type of cartilage discovered in locations requiring challenging support or an excellent tensile strength, together as in between intervertebral disks, in ~ the pubic and also other symphyses, and at sites connecting tendons or ligaments come bones.


Cells: Chondrocytes and also the precusor creates of chondrocytes recognized as chondroblasts space the just cells discovered in cartilage. Chondrocytes comprise “cell nests,” groups of chondrocytes within lacunae. Chondroblasts room responsible for the secretion and maintenance that the matrix.

Fibers: Cartilage is created of collagen and also elastic fibers. In hyaline cartilage, kind II collagen renders up 40% that its dried weight. Elastic cartilage additionally contains elastic fibers, and fibrocartilage contains much more collagen than hyaline cartilage.

Matrix: The matrix is greatly composed of proteoglycans, i beg your pardon are big molecules with a protein backbone and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) next chains.


Chondrodystrophies space a group of diseases characterized by disturbance of growth and also subsequent ossification of cartilage. Some typical diseases affecting/involving the cartilage room arthritis, achondroplasia, costochondritis, and herniated disk.

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Barbara D. Boyan, ... Zvi Schwartz, in Vitamin D (Third Edition), 2011

Publisher Summary

Cartilage is a group of tissues created by chondrocytes that is characterized by a relative lack of vascularity and also consists of cells surrounded by a specialized extracellular procession composed mostly of type II collagen and also proteoglycan, frequently in the type of proteoglycan aggregate. This chapter explains that cartilage, lot like other tissues, is a family of tissues extending a broad spectrum of cabinet maturation states. In development plate, a subset the the cartilage phenotype, chondrocytes deserve to be checked out at distinct states of mature in a straight array. Utilizing a range of in vivo and in vitro assays, investigators have been maybe to display that the development plate is perceptible to vitamin D regulation, with 24R,25(OH)2D3 affecting much less mature cells, an especially those of the resting zone, and also 1α,25(OH)2D3 modulating tasks in the growth zone (prehypertrophic and upper hypertrophic) cartilage. Fast cell-membrane-mediated occasions via Pdia3 and also vitamin D receptor (VDR) may an outcome in secondary genomic responses via protein phosphorylation cascades and also MAP kinase; in procession vesicles, fast membrane results may be termed nongenomic due to the fact that no gene expression or protein synthesis is possible. 1α,25(OH)2D3 and also 24R,25(OH)2D3 regulate chondrocyte proliferation, metabolism, differentiation, and also maturation, and events in the extracellular matrix. The effects are cabinet maturation-dependent and also organelle-specific, and may indicate both VDR-dependent and also VDR-independent genomic as well as nongenomic mechanisms.

Barbara D. Boyan, ... Zvi Schwartz, in Vitamin D (Fourth Edition), 2018

Properties that Cartilage Tissues

Cartilage is a team of tissues created by chondrocytes that is defined by a relative lack of vascularity. It consists of cells surrounded by a devoted extracellular matrix composed primarily of form II collagen and proteoglycans, often in the kind of proteoglycan aggregate. The glycosaminoglycan side chains top top the proteoglycan main point protein are extremely sulfated in the maturation tissue and also negatively charged, causing a hydration state that can withstand compressive loads. Cartilage is usually thought of together a organization at the end of lengthy bones, giving the articulating surface. No all cartilages space articular, however. Cartilaginous tissues additionally include the ear, nose, trachea, xyphoid, and also fracture callus, and the development plates that the long bones, mandibular condyle, spheno-occipital synchondrosis, and also costochondral junction.

In this chapter, we emphasis on the development plate since this tissue has been most generally studied with respect come vitamin D. The growth plate to represent a specialized situation in i m sorry the terminal differentiation the the chondrocyte wake up in a linear variety so the chondrocytes appear as columns of cell traversing the lineage in plainly demarcated zones of tires <1,2>. In ~ one end of the expansion plate is the relaxing zone, also called the reserve zone, in which the cell exhibit a hyaline cartilage-like phenotype, comparable to articular cartilage discovered at the end of long bones. The type II collagen extracellular matrix surrounding these cells is affluent in big proteoglycan aggregates identified by abundant sulfated glycosaminoglycan. Regulatory signal stimulate the cells to undergo a proliferative burst, after i beg your pardon they get in a prehypertrophic state. Hypertrophic chondrocytes boost markedly in size and also must make significant changes in the composition of their extracellular matrix to accommodate this <3>. In addition, they should prepare their matrix for mineral deposition and produce extracellular procession vesicles that room enriched in alkaline phosphatase. These procession vesicles serve as web page of early stage calcium phosphate decision formation and contain MMPs and enzymes come degrade the sulfated glysosaminoglycans. These changes to the extracellular matrix have additionally been reported because that osteoarthritic cartilage. Many of the chondrocytes undergoing hypertrophy are likewise apoptotic <4>, however how this contributes to the in its entirety physiology that the development plate is no clear. Once the matrix is calcified, it is resorbed by osteoclasts, vascular invasion occurs, and osteoprogenitor cells move onto the calcified cartilage scaffold and kind bone.

M.N. Dean, in reference Module in Life Sciences, 2017

Vascular Cartilage

Cartilage is explained as essentially avascular since it contains significantly fewer vessels 보다 bone, and yet cartilage often does contain part blood ship (Fig. 1d). In mammalian cartilage, this are consisted of in big vascular canals, numerous micrometers in diameter, which transport materials in between perichondral regions and deep cartilage tissue. Analogous passages have been report on in elasmobranchs, penetrating the areolar cartilage in vertebral centra and also containing a variety of products (chondrocytes, lymphatic and also vascular tissues). Elasmobranch vascular canals room apparently an in similar way sized come those of mammals (up to 350 mm in diameter) and were found only in those shark varieties that achieve a big maximum size; the little shark and two batoid types examined lacked canals. This phenomenon is likely widespread throughout cartilage types and species. Vascular canals have actually been it was observed in tessellated cartilage, extending beneath the teeth into the uncalcified cartilage that the lower jaw cartilage of blue sharks (Prionace glauca) and also perforating the pectoral girdles of number of batoid varieties (Fig. 1d; pers. Obs.). Vice versa, elasmobranch cartilage canals likely play a similar function to those that mammals in nourishing and maintaining cartilage, your association through deep uncalcified cartilage says that, unlike mammalian canals, they perform not help to mediate mineralization.

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J. Andrew Gillis, in referral Module in Life Sciences, 2019


Cartilage is among the two major tissues that the vertebrate skeleton (the other being bone). In mammals and also birds, cartilage features predominantly together a design template for the endoskeleton, being largely replaced by bone, and also persisting permanently at relatively few sites within the adult skeleton (e.g., in ~ joints, as articular cartilage). However, in some fishes, cartilage or cartilage-like tissues may persist together a comprehensive feature that the adult skeleton. Here, ns summarize the nature, circulation and function of cartilage in ~ the vertebrate skeleton. I then testimonial molecular mechanisms basic the advance and growth of vertebrate cartilage. Finally, I outline the phylogenetic distribution and also diversity the cartilage within and outside the vertebrates, in order to emphasize the pre-vertebrate evolutionary history of this essential skeletal tissue.