Energy LevelsSurrounding a cell core of an atom are energy levels that the electron occupy. An electron have to reside in one of these levels, not between them. They start filling the lowest energy levels first, those closest come the nucleus, and continue away from the nucleus filling greater energy levels. Us often show these power levels together concentric circles approximately the cell core of an atom. This is not a representation of the physical place of the electron in the atom. It represents the average power of the electron in a provided level.When every one of the electrons space in the shortest state possible we say the the atom is in its ground state. When they are not in the lowest possible energy level, us say the atom is in one excited state.
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Absorption and also EmissionAn atom transforms from a ground state to an excited state by taking on energy from its next site in a procedure called absorption. The electron absorbs the energy and jumps to a greater energy level. In the turning back process, emission, the electron return to the floor state by publication the extra energy it absorbed.
Recall the the electrons should occupy among the power levels. To reason a shift between the levels requires an amount of energy exactly equal to the power difference between the 2 levels. This has a profound result on the absorption and also emission spectra of one element. Due to the fact that the atom can only absorb certain amounts the energy, only certain wavelengths the light will certainly be absorbed. Keep in mind the 2 dark lines in the top part of the figure below. White light was shined on a gas sample of atoms. The atoms only soaked up at the 2 wavelengths (the two dark currently at around 590 nm) since this synchronized to the difference between two energy levels. The result of this absorption to be an atom in one excited state.
The excited state atom eventually returns to the floor state. The does this by emitting radiation. The spectrum the the emitted light is shown in the bottom part of the figure.
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Note two shining lines show up at specifically the very same wavelength as the light that was absorbed.The most studied atom is the hydrogen atom.