Sodium is a soft, silvery-white, extremely reactive metal. Sodium is an alkali metal, being in team 1 that the periodic table, due to the fact that it has a single electron in its external shell the it easily donates, developing a positively fee atom—the Na+ cation.

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Metallic salt is used largely for the manufacturing of salt borohydride, salt azide, indigo, and triphenylphosphine. Employed only in rather committed applications, only about 100,000 tonnes that metallic salt are developed annually. Sodium is now created commercially v the electrolysis of molten salt chloride.

Protons and Neutrons in Sodium

Sodium is a chemical aspect with atomic number 11 which way there are 11 protons in that nucleus. Total variety of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and also is given the symbol Z. The full electrical fee of the cell core is as such +Ze, whereby e (elementary charge) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs.

The total number of neutrons in the cell nucleus of an atom is called the neutron number of the atom and is given the symbol N. Neutron number plus atomic number equals atom mass number: N+Z=A. The difference in between the spirit number and the atom number is well-known as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.

For secure elements, there is typically a selection of secure isotopes. Isotopes space nuclides that have actually the very same atomic number and are because of this the very same element, yet differ in the variety of neutrons. Mass number of typical isotopes that Sodium are 23. 

Main isotopes of Sodium

Its only stable isotope is 23Na. 2 radioactive, cosmogenic isotopes space the byproduct that cosmic beam spallation: 22Na has actually a half-life of 2.6 years and also 24Na, a half-life the 15 hours; all various other isotopes have a half-life of less than one minute.

Sodium-23 is composed of 11 protons, 12 neutrons, and 11 electrons. Acute ghost radiation exposure (e.g., from a atom criticality accident) converts some of the steady 23Na in human blood plasma to 24Na. By measuring the concentration that this isotope, the spirit radiation dosage come the victim can be computed.

Sodium-22 is written of 11 protons, 11 neutrons, and 11 electrons. Odium-22 is a radiation isotope of sodium, experience positron emission to 22Ne with a half-life of 2.605 years. The is likewise commonly supplied as a positron resource in positron annihilation spectroscopy.

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Sodium-24 is written of 11 protons, 12 neutrons, and 11 electrons. Sodium-24 is among the most vital isotopes. The is radioactive and created from usual sodium-23 by ghost bombardment. Therefore its activity accounts for most of the reactor coolants task when reactor is at full power.