Silicon, a chemicalelement v the symbol Si and also atomic number 14, is a crystalline solid v ablue-grey metallic luster. Follow to the Pauli scale, that is electronegativityvalue is 1.90 and also it can show attributes of both metals and also non-metals(metalloid). That oxides present an amphoteric nature as its oxidation statesexhibit -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4.

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Silicon through 96.5% -99.5% purity have the right to be made by to reduce quartzite or sand with very purifiedcoke. The reduction process takes ar in presence of excess SiO2 whichhelps to stop the production of silicon carbide (SiC).

SiO2+ 2 C → Si + 2 CO2 SiC + SiO2→ 3 Si + 2 CO

You are below toknow valence electron of the silicon atom, aren’t you? Don’t worry together with siliconvalence electrons us will explain its valency also. But prior to that let’s havesome simple ideas about what these two terms are:

Difference BetweenValence Electrons and Valency

Valence electronsare the total variety of electrons present in the outermost shell of one atom(i.e. In outermost orbital). The valence electrons for a neutral atom arealways definite, it can not be differed (more or less) in any type of condition for aparticular atom and also may or may not be same to that valency.


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Valency is definedas the total number of electrons one atom can lose, gain, or share in ~ the timeof bond development to acquire a stable digital configuration i.e. To finish anoctet. The valency of an atom have the right to be variable in various compounds or chemicalreactions because of the different bonding circumstances. Many of the moment valencyvaries/changes early to change in oxidation and also reduction states.

Silicon (Si)Valence Electrons

There space foursimple actions to find out the valence electrons because that silicon atom i m sorry are:

Step 1: uncover theAtomic Number


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To uncover out theatomic variety of silicon, we have the right to use the regular table. V the assist of theperiodic table, us can conveniently see the the atomic number of silicon is 14. Asits atom number is 14, it has 14 protons, and also for neutral silicon, the numberof proton are constantly equal come the number of electrons i.e. Has actually 14 electrons inits nucleus.

Step 2: WriteElectron Configuration


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Electronconfiguration is the plan of electron on the orbitals. The silicon atomhas a full of 14 electrons so, we need to put 14 electrons in orbitals. The electronswill be put in various orbitals according to the power level: <1s, 2s,2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f>. Now,

Silicon electronconfiguration Si (14) =1s22s22p63s23p2(completeconfiguration).

= 3s²3p²(condensed configuration).

Step 3: DetermineValence Shell

As us know, thevalence shell of an atom deserve to be uncovered from the highest number of principlequantum numbers which room expressed in the ax of n, and in 3s²3p², thehighest value of n is 3 so that the valence covering of silicon is3s²3p².

Step 4: FindValence Electrons

The total number ofelectrons current in the valence covering of an atom are called valence electrons,and there room a complete of 4 electrons current in the valence shell of silicon(3s²3p²). Thus,silicon has four valence electrons.

Valency the Silicon(Si)

There room manydifferent means to find out the valency of an atom which reflects the ability ofan atom come bond with other atoms. Valence defines how easily an atom or afree radical can combine with various other chemical species. The valency of one atom isdetermined based upon the number of electrons lost, gained, or shared withanother atom at the time of bond formation.

An atom is claimed tobe stable as soon as its outermost shells have eight electrons (except H & He).If the total number of electrons in outermost shells is in between one come four,the atom has positive valency and also if electrons are between four to eight, thevalency is calculation by individually from eight and valency will be zero. Atomshaving four outermost electrons own both confident and an unfavorable valency, andatoms having actually eight outermost electrons, valency will be zero (i.e. Noblegases).

Elements like siliconcan with the secure state (nearest inert gas configuration) either by losing 4outermost electrons or by getting 4 electrons.So that the valency of siliconis 4 (tetravalency).

Note: Silicon hasboth +4 & -4 valency states. If that loses three electrons to with a stablestate (i.e. He), its valency will be +4. Yet if that gains five electrons toreach a secure state (i.e. Ne), its valency will be -4 as described above.

In another sense, asilicon atom can type four covalent bonds in chemistry bonding (For example SiF4,SiH4, SiCl4, etc.), and also that what valency is, the maximum capacity to form bondswith different atoms at the moment of chemical reactions.

We can additionally find the valency that silicon through thehelp the the regular table. Together silicon belongs to team 14 (IVa) along with carbon(C), germanium (Ge), believe (Sn), command (Pb), and flerovium (Fl). All these elementshave a valency state of four (tetravalent).

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Clarification:Valency is the combining capacity of an aspect at the time of chemical bonding. So the valency can not be negative or positive, it is simply a number value between 0 to 4.