Breed classification

Domestic cattle, Bos taurus (humpless breeds, originating native Europe and also northern Asia) and Bos indicus (humped zebu breeds, originating native India) advanced from a single and now extinct wild ancestor, Bos primigenius, the auroch.Domestication of cattle started about 12 000 years back and take it place individually for B. Taurus and also B. Indicus in several locations from various lines of aurochs.Today there are around 260 each other of domestic cattle, countless of which have been selectively bred as dairy, beef, breeze or dual-purpose animals.

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Breed classification

The main livestock breeds farmed in Italy space the following:

1) each other specialised because that milk production

Italian FriesianBrunaJersey

2) each other specialised because that meat production


3) double purpose breeds

Pezzata Rossa Italiana

Cattle categories

calf → young cattle of both sexes from bear to weaning

heifer→ young female indigenous weaning to the an initial calving

young bull →young male increased with the purpose of reproduction or beef production

cow → adult female ~ calving

bull→adult male supplied for reproduction

steer→ castrated male supplied for meat production


Cow v her calf.

Italian Friesian

Friesian space most conveniently recognized by your distinctive colour markings and also outstanding milk production.They space large, stylish animals with colour patterns of black and also white or red and white.Calves weighs 40 kg or more at birth. A tires cow weighs around 600 kg and stand 145 centimeter tall in ~ the shoulder.The heifers have the right to be bred in ~ 15 months of age, when they weigh about 400 kg. The is desirable to have actually the very first calving in between 24 and also 27 month of age.While part cows may live substantially longer, the normal productive life that a cow is 6 years.Average production for every cows enrolled in official production-testing program in 2008 to be 9,197 kg that milk, with 3.64 % that fat and also 3.30 % the protein.


Italian Friesian cow.


Once taken into consideration a double purpose breed. Today a more refined dairy type animal, capable of producing much more milk and maintaining high components.The main features that distinguish the Bruna cow are the considerable high-quality milk production, docility, robustness the the limb, resistance and also longevity, high top quality beef yields, an excellent capacity to adapt to the many varied farming environments.Average production for all Bruna enrolled in main production-testing program in 2008 to be 6,953 kg the milk, with 3.96 % that fat and 3.50 % that protein.

Height in ~ the withers:

bulls: 148-158 cmcows: 132-138 cm


bulls: 750-900 kgcows: 550-600 kg

Bruna cow.


The Jersey breed originated top top the Island the Jersey, a little British island in the English Channel turn off the coast of France.Adaptable to a wide selection of climatic and geographical conditions, the Jersey subjects are terrific grazers and also perform well in extensive grazing programs. V an average weight of 450 kg, the Jersey produces more kg of milk per kg that body weight than any type of other breed.The colour in Jerseys might vary indigenous a really light grey or computer mouse colour to a an extremely dark fawn or a shade that is practically black.Average production for all Jersey enrolled in official production-testing program in 2008 to be 6,035 kg the milk, through 5.14 % that fat and 3.99 % that protein.


Jersey cow.


Chianina are qualified by white hair and also a black color switch. They have black skin pigmentation. Chianina are warm tolerant and have a tenderness disposition.They are the largest breed in size, bulls generally standing 1.8 m tall and also weigh approximately 1,700 kg. The cows stand at 1.5 m or so and also weighing in at as much as 1,000 kg.They are provided in reproduction programs for their growth rate, high quality meat and heat tolerance. They space also an excellent foragers. Chianina are additionally tolerant to condition and insects to a greater degree than many other tamed cattle.

Thanks come these features the Chianina each other is current in numerous countries like Brazil whereby there are plenty of thousands.


Chianina bull.


The Marchigiana is a cattle form that has far-ranging somatic advancement and it is identified by a high development capacity and also outstanding precocity. It has actually a white coat the may have actually some grey shading in the males. The skin and mucosa have actually a black color pigmentation.The Marchigiana has a irradiate head with quick horns. It has actually a long cylindrical trunk with terrific muscle development, particularly in the buttock and also thigh.


bull: 1,200-1,500 kgcow: 700-900 kg

The cows have terrific maternal capabilities and calving is natural, with the calves weighing an mean of 45 kg in ~ birth.It also has an excellent growth capacity and in the ideal specimens weight gain can peak at 2 kg a day. A precocious breed, it reaches its appropriate slaughter weight at the period of 15-16 month, for a yield as high together 67%.


The Romagnola has actually a white coat with grey shading towards the front and also black apical pigmentation. Beef-cattle type characterized by remarkable somatic advance and a harmonious structure, with noticeable hindquarters and transverse diameter.This breed’s quick sturdy foot and solid feet have actually made it suitable grazing animal.


bull: 1,200-1,500 kgcow: 600-900 kg

Calving takes location without any an obstacle and the cows offer birth come wheat-coloured calves that weigh an typical of 40-45 kg.The Romagnola has an exceptional growth volume that is comparable to the Chianina and Marchigiana.Animals space slaughtered once they with a load of 650-700 kg, in ~ the age of 16-18 months. Mean slaughter productivity is 62-63%.


The Maremmana has a grey coat the is darker in males and also lighter-coloured in females, with empty apical pigmentation.As watched in various other breeds of Podolica descent, calves room wheat-coloured in ~ birth and then at around three months they turn to the characteristic colour of the breed. The horns are long and are a usual half-moon form in the males, vice versa, the females have actually lyre-shaped horns.The Maremmana has an superior skeletal structure that gives the adult a really solid and also robust appearance. This very huge sized cattle has exceptionally solid legs and also hard hooves.


bull: 700-1,200 kgcow: 600-800 kg

The Maremmana is an extraordinarily rustic and and long-living breed that deserve to reach an age of 15-16 years. Calving is spontaneous and also the calves weigh 30-40 kg at birth. They reach a load of 180-220 kg by the period of six months.


Podolica has actually been present in Italy because that a very long time. The breed is widespread over a rather large area the includes every one of southern Italy. Together a result, this has actually caused a good deal the variability in its size and also in the colour of the coat, i beg your pardon can variety from white come dark grey. Pigmentation is black.The Podolica has a lightweight skeletal structure with slender legs and solid feet. Adult bulls sweet from 600 come 800 kg.The Podolica was long used greatly in a occupational capacity and only secondarily for beef and also dairy products. In fact, that milk is ideal for producing the famed “caciocavallo’ cheese.Calvings room spontaneous and also are concentrated during the springtime. Calves are suckled because that at least 4 months.The calves space then weaned in order to be sold for slaughter at approximately 15-16 months, v weights ranging roughly 300-350 kg. In part cases, as much as males space concerned, more heavier bullocks space produced and also these subjects space slaughtered at around two years of age, at a load of 500 kg.


The Piemontese bulls, weighting 900-950 kg, have a grey or pale fawn coat, through black hairs on the head (especially around the eye sockets), ~ above the neck, the shoulders, the distal regions of the limbs and also sometimes ~ above the lateral political parties of the body and the hind limbs.The cows have a white or pale fawn coat with shades the grey or pale fawn. At bear the coat of the calves is that a deep pale fawn colour. The cows are of a medium size (550-600 kg), at bear the calves sweet on median from 40 come 45 kg.The male fattening calves are all set for slaughtering in ~ a load of 550-650 kg when they are about 15-18 month old, the females at around 350-450 kg as soon as they are about 14-16 months old. The weight get of Piemontese livestock is high, reaching 1.4 kg a day.The dressing out percent is really high, on mean 67-68% in the fattening calves, with peaks that 72%, thanks to the incredibly fine bones and the low amount of external fat.The particular characteristic of the Piemontese livestock breed is the muscular hypertrophy, much better known together the ‘double muscle factor’.

Pezzata Rossa Italiana

This each other originated in the Alps and then, many thanks to the adaptability, spread to numerous European countries and other numerous extra continent zones.Breeding in Italy started in the Friuli Venice Julia by crossing and substituting the local bovine population.This breed responds to criteria because that meat production (good size, sturdy constitution, precocity and development of certain muscle masses that correspond come the more valuable cuts) and at the exact same time has the qualities of a dairy product animal: fineness, gentility and, above all, great development that the mammary apparatus.

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Average production for all cows enrolled in official production-testing program in 2008 was 6,612 kg of milk, v 3.89 % the fat and also 3.43 % of protein.

Le lezioni del Corso

1. Cattle breeds

2. Livestock management

3. Synthetic insemination

4. Milk production

5. Milking

6. Milk quality

7. Slaughtering

8. Meat quality

9. Buffaloes

10. Pigs

11. Sheep

12. Goats

13. Chickens

14. Egg quality

15. Rabbits

16. Aquaculture

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