You are watching: Nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium occurs in the
Mass: 1.989x1030 kg Radius: 695,000 kilometres (equator) median Density: 1.410 gm/cm3 Rotation Period: 25 - 36 job escape Velocity: 618.02 km/sec Luminosity: 3.839 x 1026 watt magnitude (Vo): -26.8 surface ar Temp: 5,780 K (mean) Age: 4.5 billion years
In the main point of the sunlight hydrogen is being converted into helium. This is called nuclear fusion. It takes 4 hydrogen atoms to fuse into each helium atom. Throughout the process some that the mass is converted into energy. mass of 4 H atoms: 4.03130 AMU massive of 1 he atom: 4.00268 AMU 1 atom Mass Unit (AMU) equals 1.67x10-27kgs The difference in between the massive of 4 H atoms and 1 he atom is 0.02862 AMU which is just 0.71% that the original mass. This small portion of the massive is converted into energy. If 4 grams (1/8 ounce) that H are converted to He, only 2.8x10-3 grams the the fixed is converted to energy: exactly how much energy is generated from converting together a small amount that mass? We deserve to calculate by making use of Einstein"s well known formula. E = mc2 E = (2.8x10-3 grams) x c2 E = (2.8x10-6 kgs) x (3x108m/sec)2 E = 2.6x1011 joules Enough power to store a 60-watt light pear shining for over 100 years! The sun has different layers with different properties, these layers room composed of material that is about 75% hydrogen and also 25% helium through mass. Simply put, the sunlight is a good ball that gas, hot enough to glow in every tier. In the really innermost component of the Sun, referred to as its core, the temperature is about 15 million Kelvins, the thickness is 150 times that of water, and also the pressure is over 200 billion times greater than atmospheric pressure below on Earth. This heavy, sweltering location is wherein the Sun"s power is produced via a procedure known as thermonuclear fusion. While fusion is difficult to mimic ~ above Earth, the core of the Sun and other stars is a perfect atmosphere for it. Here, the temperatures are high sufficient for hydrogen nuclei come smash together and type helium nuclei, release tremendous amounts of power in assorted forms. Energy created in the type of light keeps bouncing roughly inside the Sun, as though the sunlight were made completely of mirrors. A particle of light can take an ext than 30,000 years to with the surface and also escape! energy in the kind of little particles referred to as neutrinos, however, can travel straight out of the Sun and into the Solar System. Neutrino observatories on earth measure the regular wash of this tiny, fast-moving particles. The obvious visual size of the sun is -26.8, making it appear about 10 exchange rate (10,000,000,000) times together bright as the following brightest star, Sirius. The absolute magnitude of the Sun, the magnitude it would have at a street of 10 parsec or 32.6 irradiate years, is +4.8. Amongst the brightest stars we have the right to see v the nude eye, there is just one, alpha Centauri, through a similar absolute magnitude to the Sun. Many of the remainder are intrinsically much brighter. irradiate takes around 500 seconds (8 1/3 minutes) to travel from the sunlight to the Earth. The typical distance to the planet from the center of the sun is around 149,000,000 km, or 93,000,000 miles; a distance well-known as an huge unit (AU). There space over 63,000 AU in 1 irradiate year. 1 AU is about 0.000016 irradiate year. The nearest star, alpha Centauri, is 4.3 light years distant, or about 280,000 AU.
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activity on the solar surface, photo by Brad Snowder.