What are genetics?
the branch the biology came to with the methods in i beg your pardon hereditary information is transmitted from parental to offspring
A hybrid is...

You are watching: Organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait are said to be

an individual that is heterozygous for a particular trait; one individual produced by a cross between members of two closely related species
F1 generation =parents (P generation)
F2 generation =offspring
If a trait is dominant it method that...a human being only demands to inherit one copy the the gene (allele) for the characteristics to be expressed.
What is a recessive trait?a person needs to inherit two copies of the gene (alleles) because that the trait to it is in expressed.
What is the principle of dominance?some alleles room dominant and also others room recessive
The legislation of distinction is...the hereditary principle stating the the alleles that a gene happen in pairs and are separated from each other during meiosis and are recombined in ~ fertilization
A gene is...a distinctive unit of hereditary material uncovered in chromosomes; a succession of nucleotides in DNA that codes for a certain tRNA, r RNA or polypeptide
What is an allele?one that the 2 or much more forms of the gene for a certain trait
Having two the same alleles for a trait way that an organism is...homozygous ex: TT or tt
A heterozygous biology is one that...has two various alleles for a characteristics Ex: Tt
What is the genotype?the genetic comprise of an separation, personal, instance EX: TT, Tt, tt
What is phenotype?the physical traits that appear in one individual as a result of its hereditary makeup EX: blue eyes
A punnett square is provided in genetics to...show the result of a cross
Incomplete supremacy is...a form of inheritance in which no pair of contrasting alleles is leading over the other and also the heterozygous individual is immediate in phenotype; mix inheritance
What is codominance?a type of inheritance in which two leading alleles space expressed in ~ the same time there is no blending of characteristics Ex. Roan cattle – mixture of red and also white hair, Speckled chickens – black and also white feathers
Multiple alleles are...three or much more different creates of a gene each creating a different phenotype
Genesgenetic indict that recognize the qualities of organisms & every carries a separate piece of coded information
Traitscharacteristics that varies native one individual to another
How are traits determined?by one pair of genes or by numerous pairs that genes
Can a single gene pair influence more than one trait?yes
Skin color is affected by how numerous gene pairs?multiple
Hereditythe happen of hereditary information from one generation come the next through reproduction
Gregor MendelFather of Genetics; offered pea tree to study patterns of inheritance.
True-breedingif permitted to self-pollinate, they would create offspring identical to themselves.
Gametes (Sex Cells) =specialized cells involved in sexual reproduction.
Homozygous:Organisms that have two identical alleles because that a certain trait. TT or tt are examples of homozygous alleles
Heterozygous:Organisms that have actually two different alleles because that the same trait. Tt is an instance of heterozygous alleles.

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“Law” of independent Assortment -alleles for different genes generally segregate individually of one another
Polygenic TraitsTraits controlled by 2 or much more genes, Reddish-brown colours in the eyes of fruit flies – at the very least 3 genes, Often show a wide range of phenotypes, Ex. Person skin color
Homologous –term offered to describe chromosomes that each have actually a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent
Diploid –contains both to adjust of homologous chromosomes, way “two sets”, prize = 2N, Ex. Human Diploid Number
Haploid –contain just a single set of chromosomes; a single collection of genes,Means “one set”, prize = N,Ex. Human Haploid Number – 23 chromosomes
MeiosisProcess that reduction division in which the variety of chromosomes every cell is reduced in half through the separation the homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell,Used to produce gametes or sex cells
Meiosis ns – an initial Meiotic DivisionEach chromosome is replicated or copied, starts by adhering to same actions to division as mitosis, Prophase the meiosis i – every chromosome pairs through its matching homologous chromosome to type a structure dubbed a tetrad (4 chromatids)
crossing over.Homologous chromosomes might exchange sections of your chromatids in a process called _____
Meiosis IITwo cells developed by meiosis i now enter meiosis II, They carry out not replicate their chromosomes. Every daughter cell has 2 chromatids., Anaphase II – 2 chromatids are separated from every other
Spermatogenesis –meiotic process of make sperm (male sex cells) create 4 sperm
Oogenesis –meiotic process of make egg cell (female sex cells),Creates one huge egg and also 3 smaller sized polar bodies