We’re gift asked to identify theoxidation state that phosphorusinPO43– (phosphate ion).

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Therules because that oxidation statesare as follows:

A. Basic Rules:

1. For an atom in its elemental type (Zn, Cl2, C(graphite), etc.) O.S. = 0

2. Because that an ion (Li+, Al3+, etc.) O.S. = charge

B. Details Rules:

1. Group 1A O.S. = +1

2. Team 2A O.S. = +2

3. Hydrogen O.S. = +1, with nonmetals

O.S. = –1 with metals and also boron

4. Fluorine O.S. = –1

5. Oxygen O.S. = –1 in peroxides (X2O2, X = team 1A)

O.S. = –1/2 in superoxides (XO2, X = team 1A)

O.S. = –2 in other compounds

6. Group 7A O.S. = –1 (except when bonded come O)

Since PO43– is neither a peroxide or superoxide,the oxidation state of each oxygen atom is –2.

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Problem Details

What is the oxidation variety of phosphorus in PO43−?

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