define phylogeny. Surname the 3 domain names of the 3 Domain device of classification and recognize a description of each. Name the 4 kingdoms that the Domain Eukarya and recognize a description of each. Define horizontal gene transfer.

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The earth is 4.6 billion year old and also microbial life is thought to have very first appeared between 3.8 and 3.9 billion years ago; in fact, 80% that Earth"s history was specifically microbial life. Microbial life is tho the dominant life type on Earth. It has been estimated that the total variety of microbial cells on planet on the order of 2.5 X 1030 cells, making that the major portion of chrischona2015.orgmass top top the planet.

Phylogeny describes the evolutionary relationships in between organisms. The three Domain System, propose by Woese and also others, is an evolutionary version of phylogeny based upon differences in the order of nucleotides in the cell"s ribosome RNAs (rRNA), and also the cell"s membrane lipid structure and also its sensitivity come antichrischona2015.orgtics. To compare rRNA framework is particularly useful. Due to the fact that rRNA molecules throughout nature bring out the same function, their structure transforms very tiny over time. Therefore similarities and also dissimilarities in rRNA nucleotide sequences space a an excellent indication of exactly how related or unrelated different cells and organisms are.

There are miscellaneous hypotheses as to the beginning of prokaryotic and also eukaryotic cells. Due to the fact that all cells are comparable in nature, it is usually thought the all cells come from a typical ancestor cabinet termed the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). This LUCAs ultimately evolved right into three different cell types, each representing a domain. The three domain names are the Archaea, the Bacteria, and also the Eukarya.

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Bacteria, present some features of the domains Archaea and also Eukarya.

Some of these bacteria show cell compartmentalization wherein membranes surround parts of the cabinet interior, such as groups of ribosom or DNA, similar to eukaryotic cells. Some divide by budding or save sterols in their membranes, again comparable to eukaryotes. Some lack peptidoglycan, comparable to eukaryotes and also archaea. It has actually been surmised that these bacteria migh be an intermediary step in between an ancestor that emerged from a bacterium (domain Bacteria) and also an archael-eukaryotic ancestor before its separation into the domain names Archaea and Eukarya.

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api/deki/files/4677/esterether.jpg?revision=2" />Figure (PageIndex3): Membrane Lipids of Archaea, Bacteria, and also Eukarya. The Bacteria and also the Eukarya have actually membranes composed of unbranched fatty acid chains attached come glycerol by ester linkages. The Archaea have membranes written of branched hydrocarbon chains attached come glycerol through ether linkages.

Archaea regularly live in extreme environments and also include methanogens, too much halophiles, and hyperthermophiles. One factor for this is the the ether-containing linkages in the Archaea membranes is an ext stabile than the ester-containing linkages in the Bacteria and also Eukarya and also are better able to withstand greater temperatures and stronger acid concentrations.


The Bacteria (eubacteria)

Bacteria (also known as eubacteria or "true bacteria") space prokaryotic cells the are typical in human daily life, encounter many an ext times 보다 the archaebacteria. Eubacteria have the right to be found practically everywhere and kill thousands top top thousands of world each year, but likewise serve as antichrischona2015.orgtics producers and also food digesters in ours stomachs. The Bacteria own the following characteristics:

Bacteria room prokaryotic cells. Prefer the Eukarya, they have membranes composed of unbranched fatty acid chains attached come glycerol by ester linkages (Figure (PageIndex3)). The cell wall surfaces of Bacteria, unequal the Archaea and the Eukarya, save on computer peptidoglycan. Bacteria room sensitive to classic antibacterial antichrischona2015.orgtics yet are resistant to many antichrischona2015.orgtics that affect Eukarya. Bacteria save on computer rRNA the is unique to the Bacteria as suggested by the visibility molecular regions distinctly different from the rRNA the Archaea and Eukarya.

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Bacteria include mycoplasmas, cyanobacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and also Gram-negative bacteria.