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A parallelism exists between the directionals and the pronouns, possessives, and demonstratives questioned in thing 8: every one of them more or much less express loved one distance in between speaker and addressee in location and/or time. Check out table 12.

The ø-demonstrative nei ~ iho, a"e, and aku to add the meaning "past", through aku nei being much more remote than iho nei or a"e nei. Mai nei suggests past time and also present place: Inā "oe i hele mai nei me ka maika"i . . . (FS 225). "If you had actually come here with an excellent . . . ." compare i ka pō nei "last night" and also nehinei "yesterday", i kēia mau lā iho nei "these last few days" and also i kēia mau lā iho "the coming few days", and also hele roof nei nō "oia "he came here."

The time scale with directionals with and without following nei is more or much less as follows:

Distant past: aku nei

Recent past: a"e nei, iho nei

Adjoining the present: a"e

Near future: iho

Distant future: aku


kēlā pule aku nei "last week"

kēia pule aku nei ā ia pule aku nei "week before last"

Ua hele a"e nei no Maui. " has just gone to Maui."

i kēia mau lā iho nei "these past couple of days"

ia lā a"e ia lā a"e "from day to day"

ko"u mua a"e "the just before me"

i kēia mau lā iho "the coming days"

"apōpō ā ia lā aku "day ~ tomorrow"

I hea aku nei "oe (Kelekona 130)? "Where have actually you been?"

The usage of directionals v verbs of saying ("ī pane, nīnau, kāhea, "ōlelo) has not been sufficiently studied. Aku, mai, and also a"e it seems to be ~ to it is in the most common, maybe in that order. They space sometimes followed by the ø-demonstrative "there (far)" or through -la together an close the door (see Glossary).

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In English one might say "John said", yet in Hawaiian the family member positions that speaker and addressee might be displayed by the directionals. Compare:

"ī maila "oia "he stated to me"

"ī a"ela "oia "he claimed to who nearby"

"ī akula "oia "he claimed to someone else"