Look in ~ the atom displayed below. It has actually 3 every of protons, neutron andelectrons, and represents that aspect Lithium (Li). If we were to writeout the name symbolically, it would certainly be 6Li.

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Lithium Atom

Lithium has only one electron in it"s outermost shell.What would happen if we were to remove that electron?


Without that outermost electron, the lithium atom would have actually morepositive fees (+3) than an unfavorable charges (-2). One atom v a differentnumber of electron to protons would certainly be dubbed an ion.Elements favor lithium that loosened their electrons type positive ions.Symbolically, we deserve to represent this together Li+1. Other elementstend to acquire electrons. Oxygen is a an excellent example of one of these:


Oxygen Atom

Oxygen has a full of 8 electrons normally, but only 6 that theseare in the outermost covering or orbital. Facets prefer come have full outershells. They also prefer to obtain to this state as quickly as possible.Above, that was much easier for lithium to lose one electron than to get 7electrons. Similarly, the is much easier for oxygen to acquire 2 electrons insteadof loosing 6 electrons:


Oxygen Ion

The two acquired electrons (purple dots) method that this oxygenion has 10 electrons (-10 charge) and also only 8 protons (+8 charge), offering the iona net charge of -2. Symbolically, we deserve to represent this oxygen ion as O-2.

The regular Table have the right to be used to help predict how manyelectrons there are in the outermost shell, and also hence what type of ion lock willform. Here is the very same chart indigenous the previous page, however with someadditional information added to it:


The black color numbers over represent the variety of electrons in theouter shell. Notification that each tower has more electrons in the outermostshell together you go to the right, and also that the last heat (headed by that or Helium) hasa complete outer shell. Special note: Helium has only 2 electrons inthe outermost shell, but that is full for the first shell. The rednumbers represent the type of ion the the atom would form, starting with+1 ion on the left and finishing v no ion ("0") on theright. Elements with a complete outer shell execute not form ions.The yellow section, labeled "Transition Elements" are facets thattend to shed electrons from shells other than the outermost shell and formpositive ions. For example, steel (Fe) creates two various positive ions,Fe+2 (ferrous iron) and Fe+3 (ferriciron). Knowledge why there are different ions of steel is complicated andbeyond the limit of this course. However, girlfriend should have the ability to determinethe ionic state of atoms from the other groups using a routine Table.

Quick Quiz: usage the chart over to prize thefollowing questions:

What ion would certainly a Chlorine (Cl) atom form? What ion would certainly an Aluminum (Al) atom form? What ion would a Magnesium (Mg) atom form? What ion would a Potassium (K) atom form?Answers:

Chorine is in the saturday column and therefore has 7 electrons in that is outermost shell. That would tend to acquire one electron and kind a -1 ion. Aluminum is in the 5th column and also therefore has actually 5 electron in that is outermost shell. The would tend to lose three electron and form a +3 ion. Magnesium is in the second column and also therefore has 2 electrons in that is outermost shell. The would have tendency to lose two electron and form a +2 ion. Potassium is in the an initial column and also therefore has 1 electron in the outermost shell. It would tend to shed one electron and form a +1 ion.Continue and also learn about bonding.

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