Cells get nutrients from their environment, however where do those nutrient come from? practically all organic material on earth has been created by cell that transform energy from the Sun into energy-containing macromolecules. This process, dubbed photosynthesis, is important to the global carbon cycle and also organisms the conduct photosynthesis stand for the lowest level in most food chains (Figure 1).




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Figure 1:Photosynthetic tree synthesize carbon-based energy molecules from the power in sunlight. Consequently, they administer an variety of energy for various other organisms.
Plants exist in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. (A) Coleochaete orbicularis (Charophyceae) gametophyte; magnification x 75 (photograph courtesy of L. E. Graham). (B) Chara (Charophyceae) gametophyte; magnification x 1.5 (photograph courtesy that M. Feist). (C) Riccia (liverwort) gametophyte mirroring sporangia (black) installed in the thallus; magnification x 5 (photograph courtesy that A. N. Drinnan). (D) Anthoceros (hornwort) gametophyte showing unbranched sporophytes; magnification x 2.5 (photograph courtesy of A. N. Drinnan). (E) Mnium (moss) gametophyte reflecting unbranched sporophytes v terminal sporangia (capsule); magnification x 4.5 (photograph courtesy that W. Burger). (F) Huperzia (clubmoss) sporophyte v leaves showing sessile yellow sporangia; magnification x 0.8. (G) Dicranopteris (fern) sporophyte reflecting leaves v circinate vernation; magnification x 0.08. (H) Psilotum (whisk fern) sporophyte with decreased leaves and also spherical synangia (three unify sporangia); magnification x 0.4. (I) Equisetum (horsetail) sporophyte through whorled branches, reduced leaves, and also a terminal cone; magnification x 0.4. (J) Cycas (seed plant) sporophyte mirroring leaves and also terminal cone through seeds; magnification x 0.05 (photograph courtesy the W. Burger).
© 1993 Elsevier component A: Graham, L. E. Origin of soil plants. New York: J. Wiley and also Sons, 1993. All rights reserved. Part B: courtesy the M. Feist, college of Montpellier. Components C and D: courtesy that Andrew Drinnan, Univeristy the Melbourne, college of Botany. Components E, F and also J: Courtesy of wilhelm Burger, field Museum, Chicago.

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Coleochaete orbicularis. Both the gametophyte and the background space bright green. The gametophyte has an irregular circular shape and also a scalloped edge. It is divided into numerous box-like segment (cells), each v a visible, ring nucleus inside. Dashboard b reflects a Chara gametophyte. The organism has branching, tendril-like leaves getting to from a main stalk. The eco-friendly leaves space punctuated through small, round, yellow structures. A environment-friendly liverwort gametophyte, In dashboard c, is protruding indigenous the soil. Its four primary stems every diverge into two halves and then branch again at your termini, so that each has a forked end. Panel d shows a hornwort gametophyte. Each environment-friendly stem resembles a single blade of grass. Panel e shows moss gametophytes with sporophytes protruding indigenous the ground. The gametophytes have small green leaves, and the sporophytes are thin, unbranched, brown stalks. Each sporophyte has a fluorescent orange, oviform capsule dubbed a sporangia perched on top of that is stalk. Dashboard f reflects six clubmoss sporophytes emanating from the ground. Some stand vertically out of the soil, and some curve or have actually fallen horizontally. Castle have plenty of stiff, protruding, spine-like, green leaves. The sporangia are small yellow balls in ~ the basic of the leaves. Dashboard g reflects fern sporophytes with many stems extended with small, elongated, symmetrical green leaves. Panel h reflects a whisk fern sporophyte with long, straight, environment-friendly stems beaded through yellow, round synangia follow me their lengths. In dashboard i, a horsetail sporophyte is shown. It has a single long stem, which is surrounded by a dress of eco-friendly leaves in ~ its base and also an elongated, yellow cone at the top. In panel j, a huge Cycas seed tree sporophyte is shown. Long fronds emanate upwards indigenous the plant"s trunk, and in the facility of them there is a large mass dubbed the cone." href="javascript:void(0)" onclick="callNewShowInformConceptAfterPublish("true","true","Y","/scitable/content/ne0000/ne0000/ne0000/ne0000/14667822/U1.cp4.1_389033ab.tif.2.jpg", "Photosynthetic tree synthesize carbon-based energy molecules from the energy in sunlight. Consequently, they administer an diversity of energy for other organisms.", "Figure 1", "Plants exist in a wide selection of shapes and sizes. (A) Coleochaete orbicularis (Charophyceae) gametophyte; magnification x 75 (photograph courtesy the L. E. Graham). (B) Chara (Charophyceae) gametophyte; magnification x 1.5 (photograph courtesy of M. Feist). (C) Riccia (liverwort) gametophyte mirroring sporangia (black) installed in the thallus; magnification x 5 (photograph courtesy of A. N. Drinnan). (D) Anthoceros (hornwort) gametophyte showing unbranched sporophytes; magnification x 2.5 (photograph courtesy the A. N. Drinnan). (E) Mnium (moss) gametophyte reflecting unbranched sporophytes with terminal sporangia (capsule); magnification x 4.5 (photograph courtesy of W. Burger). (F) Huperzia (clubmoss) sporophyte through leaves mirroring sessile yellow sporangia; magnification x 0.8. (G) Dicranopteris (fern) sporophyte mirroring leaves through circinate vernation; magnification x 0.08. (H) Psilotum (whisk fern) sporophyte with lessened leaves and also spherical synangia (three unify sporangia); magnification x 0.4. (I) Equisetum (horsetail) sporophyte with whorled branches, diminished leaves, and a terminal cone; magnification x 0.4. (J) Cycas (seed plant) sporophyte mirroring leaves and also terminal cone v seeds; magnification x 0.05 (photograph courtesy the W. Burger).", "620", "http://www.elsevier.com/", "Ten photosynthesis plants are pictured in a collection of photographs labeled a with j. Panel a is a photomicrograph that a gametophyte of a microscopic environment-friendly alga called Coleochaete orbicularis. Both the gametophyte and also the background are bright green. The gametophyte has actually an irregular circular shape and a scalloped edge. It is split into numerous box-like segment (cells), each v a visible, ring nucleus inside. Dashboard b mirrors a Chara gametophyte. The organism has branching, tendril-like leaves getting to from a major stalk. The green leaves room punctuated through small, round, yellow structures. A eco-friendly liverwort gametophyte, In dashboard c, is protruding indigenous the soil. Its four primary stems each diverge into two halves and then branch again at your termini, so that each has actually a forked end. Panel d shows a hornwort gametophyte. Each environment-friendly stem resembles a single blade of grass. Dashboard e shows moss gametophytes with sporophytes protruding native the ground. The gametophytes have little green leaves, and also the sporophytes space thin, unbranched, brown stalks. Each sporophyte has a fluorescent orange, oviform capsule called a sporangia perched on top of the stalk. Panel f mirrors six clubmoss sporophytes emanating from the ground. Part stand vertically out of the soil, and some curve or have actually fallen horizontally. Lock have many stiff, protruding, spine-like, eco-friendly leaves. The sporangia are tiny yellow balls at the base of the leaves. Panel g shows fern sporophytes with plenty of stems covered with small, elongated, symmetrical environment-friendly leaves. Dashboard h shows a whisk fern sporophyte through long, straight, environment-friendly stems beaded through yellow, ring synangia follow me their lengths. In panel i, a horsetail sporophyte is shown. It has actually a single long stem, which is surrounding by a skirt of eco-friendly leaves at its base and an elongated, yellow cone in ~ the top. In panel j, a large Cycas seed tree sporophyte is shown. Lengthy fronds emanate upwards native the plant"s trunk, and also in the center of them there is a huge mass referred to as the cone.")" class="inlineLinks">Figure Detail