GRE subject Test: Chemistry assist » basic Chemistry » Elements and the routine Table » periodic Trends » atomic Radius
Explanation:

Most people plainly understand that atomic radius will boost as friend go down the regular table. However, going from left to right will actually decrease atomic radius. The reason is the the raised positive fee in the nucleus indigenous the added protons will certainly pull the electron closer, decreasing the radius. That the given options, arsenic and selenium room in the lowest row, but arsenic is an ext to the left. As a result, it has actually the biggest atomic radius.

You are watching: Which element has the largest atomic radius?


Explanation:

The trend for atom radius is to rise going from height to bottom, as extr valence shells are included to the atom. Out of the answer choices, rubidium has actually the highest energy valence shell.

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With a solitary electron in the fifth power level, krypton will have the highest variety of energy levels of the group I elements listed.

When moving across a period, atomic radius will decrease as the number of protons increases. These protons rise the attraction in between the high-energy electrons and the nucleus, efficiently "shrinking" the electron cloud.


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Example question #11 : regular Trends


Which the the following has the biggest atomic radius?


Possible Answers:

*



*


*


Correct answer:


Explanation:

Atomic radius increases with increasing efficient nuclear fee (Z). Elements toward the right and toward the top of the routine table have actually the greatest Z values. Protons and also electrons are added in pairs together we traverse the periodic table native left come right. A attractive pressure is established between the positively-charged nucleus and the negatively-charged electron cloud, which rises as the variety of particles grows.

When electrons are added or taken far without the same happening to a proton, one imbalance of charge accumulates. When more electrons are present than normal, the electron cloud sags farther away from the nucleus. As soon as fewer electron are existing than normal, the electron cloud is attracted in more tightly toward the nucleus. Atoms with extra electron (a negative charge) will have larger nuclei than their neutral counterparts. A chloride ion will thus has actually a larger atomic radius than argon, a potassium ion, or a calcium ion.


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Example concern #12 : regular Trends


Which of the following facets has the best atomic radius?


Possible Answers:

F


O


C


N


B


Correct answer:

B


Explanation:

Atomic radius have the right to be identified using the routine trends. Atom radius boosts to the left the a duration and down a group of the routine table. Electronegativity, in contrast, boosts to the appropriate of a duration and up a team of the routine table. Relating the two, we can see the the greater the atom radius, the weaker that is electronegativity due to the fact that the electrons space farther away from the nucleus and also are can not to feeling the attractive force of the protons in the nucleus.


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Example question #5 : atom Radius


Which that the given atoms has the smallest atomic radius?


Possible Answers:

Bi


N


P


As


Correct answer:

N


Explanation:

Nitrogen, phosphorous, antimony, and bismuth are all in the same team (column) the the periodic table.

The atomic radius rises from the optimal of a team to the bottom, as result of increased principle shell number (n). Together one travels down a group, an additional s shell is added, definition that electron are added in an additional orbit farther indigenous the nucleus. This serves to rise the atomic radius that the atom.


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Example question #31 : regular Trends


Which the the given atoms has the biggest atomic radius?


Possible Answers:

O


Ne


Li


B


Correct answer:

Li


Explanation:

Lithium, boron, oxygen, and also neon room all in the very same row (period) the the regular table.

The atom radius decreases indigenous left to appropriate along a duration due to increased reliable nuclear force. From left to appropriate the atomic number increases, describe that more protons space added. The enhancement of protons increases the positive charge in the nucleus, pulling in the outer electrons by increasing the reliable nuclear force, diminish the radius.

In math terms, we deserve to equate efficient nuclear force using the pressure equation between two charged particles.

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We have the right to see the the farther personal the electrons and protons are, the much less the force is in between them.


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Example inquiry #7 : atomic Radius


Which of the following would have actually the biggest atomic radius?


Possible Answers:

Iodine


Chlorine


Bromine


Flourine


Correct answer:

Iodine


Explanation:

Atomic radius rises down each group of the regular table and toward the left of every period. Since the elements listed are all in the same group, iodine would have actually the best atomic radius due to the fact that it farther down the period compared come the others. 


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Example concern #8 : atom Radius


Which of the adhering to correctly explains the tendency for atomic radius in the regular table the elements?


Possible Answers:

Atomic radius increases with increasing energy level. Atomic radius increases as brand-new electrons are included within the exact same orbital.


Atomic radius increases with increasing energy level. Atom radius remains consistent as new electrons are included within the exact same orbital.


Atomic radius decreases with increasing energy level. Atomic radius remains consistent as new electrons are included within the exact same orbital.


Atomic radius increases with increasing energy level. Atom radius to reduce as brand-new electrons are added within the exact same orbital.


Atomic radius decreases v increasing power level. Atomic radius boosts as brand-new electrons are included within the exact same orbital.


Correct answer:

Atomic radius rises with increasing power level. Atomic radius decreases as new electrons are included within the very same orbital.


Explanation:

Energy level increases moving under a team of the routine table. As power level increases, the outer valence shell becomes more distant indigenous the nucleus, causing atomic radius to increase.

Energy level remains continuous across a period, however electrons are included within the exact same orbitals. When brand-new electrons are added within the same orbital, added protons are also included to the nucleus. This increases the effective nuclear charge, pulling the electron closer to the nucleus. The tendency for atom radius is come decrease as we move right follow me a row.

This method that the general trend because that atomic radius is to increase as one move to the left and downward on the routine table.


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Example question #2 : atom Radius


Which atom would certainly be meant to have actually the largest atomic radius?


Possible Answers:

Nitrogen


Aluminum


Calcium


Magensium


Oxygen


Correct answer:

Calcium


Explanation:

The radius of an atom is figured out by the size of the orbitals top top its outermost shell. Listed below are the atom radius trends:

1. Atomic radius boosts from optimal to bottom within each column.

2. Atomic radius decreases native left to right within every period.

Because calcium is situated closest come the bottom appropriate on the routine table, it has actually the highest possible atomic radius. Namely, this is as result of the truth that calcium"s highest energy electron is in the fourth energy shell.


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Example inquiry #3 : atom Radius


Which atom would be expected to have actually the smallest atomic radius?


Possible Answers:

Nitrogen


Sodium


Phosphorus


Magnesium


Potassium


Correct answer:

Nitrogen


Explanation:

The radius of one atom is determined by the size of the orbitals ~ above its outermost shell. Below are the atomic radius trends:

1. Atomic radius rises from top to bottom within each column.

2. Atom radius decreases from left to best within a period.

Because nitrogen is furthest to the the optimal right on the periodic table, it has actually the smallest atomic radius.


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