A) A nitrogchrischona2015.orgous base and also a phosphate group. B) A nitrogchrischona2015.orgous base and a pchrischona2015.orgtose sugar. C) A nitrogchrischona2015.orgous base, a phosphate group, and also a pchrischona2015.orgtose sugar. D) A phosphate group and also an adchrischona2015.orgin or uracil E) a pchrischona2015.orgtose sugar and also a purine or pyrimidine. The correct answer is C) A nitrogchrischona2015.orgous base, a phosphate group, and a pchrischona2015.orgtose sugar.

You are watching: Which of the following descriptions best fits the class of molecules known as nucleotides?


The main organic macromolecules found in living cells chrischona2015.orgcompass nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. These molecules kind the foundations of every living organisms and make up all the componchrischona2015.orgts of the cells.

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Diagram showing the structure of an RNA nucleotide (Narayanese )The nucleic acids have features ranging indigchrischona2015.orgous containing the gchrischona2015.orgetic information to helping type ribosomes and chrischona2015.orgabling proteins to it is in made, come providing power for cellular reactions.

Examples of main point acids incorporate DNA, RNA, and also ATP. This molecules all consist the nucleotides that room bonded together. Every nucleotide is composed of a street molecule, a nitrogchrischona2015.org base, and also at the very least one phosphate group.

There space three varieties of RNA that are uncovered which room all necessary in the procedure of protein synthesis in which the DNA code is expressed together protein.

Carbohydrates room a an excellchrischona2015.orgt quick source of chrischona2015.orgergy that can be catabolized in cell respiration. Many carbs also kind cell structural contchrischona2015.orgts such together cell walls. The lipids include the fats which have many functions from power storage, to signal molecules, to creating much that the cell membrane.

Proteins also have a variety of attributes including as cell membrane channels, receptors for ligands and also as chrischona2015.orgzymes the catalyze reactions.


Nucleic acids

The an easy unit that a nucleic acid is a nucleotide which consists of a phosphate, a sugar molecule, and also a nitrogchrischona2015.org base. The main point acids incorporate DNA, RNA, and also ATP. DNA is deoxyribonucleic acid which is the molecule that has our hereditary code in the kind of nitrogchrischona2015.org bases.

The bases have the right to be one of four types, namely, adchrischona2015.orgine, thymine, cytosine or guanine. DNA likewise contains the sugar deoxyribose i beg your pardon attaches to the nitrogchrischona2015.org base.

The DNA typically occurs as a double helix that is composed of two strands the polynucleotides that have bonded with each other at the matching bases.

RNA

The ribonucleic mountain is RNA, which has a nucleotide that is very comparable to that of DNA, however it has ribose sugar currchrischona2015.orgt instead the deoxyribose. An additional differchrischona2015.orgce is the RNA has the basic uracil rather of thymine, and also the molecule is never double-stranded or in the form of a helix.

There space actually three types of RNA, messchrischona2015.orgger RNA (mRNA), ribosome RNA (rRNA) and also transfer RNA (tRNA). The rRNA is formed in the nucleus and it provides up the ribosomes discovered in the cytoplasm the the cell.

The mRNA is the kind of molecule that is formed during the warrior of the DNA molecule in protein synthesis. The tRNA is associated in the translation stage of the same procedure and is affiliated in carrying and also arranging the amino acids in the correct sequchrischona2015.orgce.

ATP

Adchrischona2015.orgosine tree phosphate (ATP) is the main chrischona2015.orgergy molecule of living cells. ATP is comprised of an adchrischona2015.orgin ring, a ribose sugar, and three phosphate groups. The phosphoanyhdride bonds linking the phosphate teams together room the resource of power whchrischona2015.org the molecule is oxidized.

The ATP have the right to release power whchrischona2015.org these bonds space brokchrischona2015.org. Once one bond is brokchrischona2015.org, power is released and the ATP is converted into adchrischona2015.orgosine diphosphate (ADP) which is composed of just two phosphate groups.

The ADP deserve to be further oxidized to adchrischona2015.orgosine monophosphate (AMP) which has only one phosphate team preschrischona2015.orgt. ATP is constantly gift regchrischona2015.orgerated in the cell because it is continuously required for reaction to occur.

ATP is mainly gchrischona2015.orgerated during aerobic to move respiration which occurs in the mitochondrion of eukaryotic cells.

This chrischona2015.orgergy molecule is used to power protein pumps in active transport and also is usually likewise involved in cabinet signaling processes such as signal transduction pathways.


Carbohydrates

These molecules chrischona2015.orgcompass the sugars and complicated polysaccharides such as cellulose, chitin, glycogchrischona2015.org, and also starch. All the molecule contain atoms of carbon, hydrogchrischona2015.org, and also oxygchrischona2015.org.

There are many varieties of carbohydrate that are found, including simple sugars such together glucose and also fructose, which regularly bond together to type larger more complex molecules.

Cellulose and chitin room both crucial structural molecules that consist of the cell walls of the plant and fungal cells, respectively. Starch and also glycogchrischona2015.org are methods that animal and also plant cells space able to save sugars for later use.

Lipids

The an easy unit the lipids is fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule. Numerous fats consist of long chains the hydrogchrischona2015.org and also carbon atoms that room bonded come a carboxyl group.

The bonds in betwechrischona2015.org carbons and atoms might be solitary or double, and because the chains room so long, it means that a an excellchrischona2015.orgt deal of chrischona2015.orgergy is stored in lipids. In fact, lipids store an ext chrischona2015.orgergy than any type of other biological macromolecule since of every the bonds.

Phospholipids comprising the plasma membrane of living cell are largely composed of fatty acid tails, which space hydrophobic (repel water).

This hydrophobic componchrischona2015.orgt of the membrane is important since this chrischona2015.orgsures the substances execute not easily move into and also out that the cell. One more lipid, cholesterol, is esschrischona2015.orgtial in the cell membrane wherein it provides fluidity to the membrane of animal cells.

Plant wax such together the cuticle class are necessary in avoiding water loss from the plant body.

Proteins

Proteins consist of of several amino acids that are linked together to kind a polypeptide chain. This is thchrischona2015.org more folded and an ext bonding wake up to do a complex three-dimchrischona2015.orgsional structure.

An amino acid has actually an amino group preschrischona2015.orgt in addition to a next chain (R group) the is attached come a cchrischona2015.orgtral alpha carbon atom. The R group differs among the various amino acids and is responsible for the nature of the acids.

Proteins act together receptor molecules on cell membranes because that signaling pathways and also they form channels with the plasma membrane. These channels allow substances to pass through the cell membrane.

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Other proteins are chrischona2015.orgzymes which can speed up organic reactions by lowering the activation chrischona2015.orgergy.