Ionic Bonding and also Electron Transfer

An ionic bond results from the carry of an electron indigenous a metal atom to a non-metal atom.

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Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonds are formed in between cations and also anions.A cation is created when a steel ion loses a valence electron if an anion is created when a non-metal benefit a valence electron. Lock both accomplish a more stable digital configuration v this exchange.Ionic solids form crystalline lattices, or repeating fads of atoms, through high melting points, and are frequently soluble in water.Key Termselectrolyte: one ionic link which disappear in H2O, do the result solution capable of conducting electricity.electronegativity: The propensity of an atom to tempt electrons to itself.cation: A positively charged ion.anion: A negatively fee ion.

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bond in which valence electrons are lost from one atom and also gained by another. This exchange outcomes in a much more stable, noble gas digital configuration because that both atoms involved. One ionic link is based upon attractive electrostatic forces between two ion of opposite charge.

Cations and Anions

Ionic bond involve a cation and also an anion. The bond is formed when an atom, generally a metal, loses an electron or electrons, and also becomes a optimistic ion, or cation. An additional atom, commonly a non-metal, is may be to get the electron(s) to end up being a an unfavorable ion, or anion.

One example of an ionic shortcut is the formation of sodium fluoride, NaF, from a sodium atom and a fluorine atom. In this reaction, the sodium atom loses its single valence electron come the fluorine atom, which has just enough room to expropriate it. The ions produced are oppositely charged and also are attracted to one an additional due come electrostatic forces.

Formation that NaF: an electron is moved from Na to F. The resulting Na+ and F– ions space electrically attractive to each other.

At the macroscopic scale, ionic compounds type lattices, room crystalline solids under regular conditions, and have high melting points. Many of this solids space soluble in H2O and conduct electrical power when dissolved. The capability to conduct electricity in solution is why this substances are referred to as electrolytes. Table salt, NaCl, is a an excellent example that this form of compound.

Ionic bonds differ from covalent bonds. Both types an outcome in the stable digital states associated with the noble gases. However, in covalent bonds, the electrons room shared in between the 2 atoms. All ionic bonds have some covalent character, yet the bigger the distinction in electronegativity between the two atoms, the better the ionic character of the interaction.

Ionic Bonding – YouTube: In this video, Paul Andersen explains how ionic solids form when cations and anions room attracted.

Lattice Energy

Lattice energy is a measure up of the bond toughness in an ionic compound.

Learning Objectives

Describe lattice energy and the factors that affect it

Key Takeaways

Key PointsLattice power is identified as the power required to different a mole of an ionic solid into gaseous ions.Lattice power cannot be measured empirically, but it can be calculated utilizing electrostatics or approximated using the Born-Haber cycle.Two main determinants that contribute to the magnitude of the lattice energy are the charge and also radius the the external inspection ions.Key Termsexothermic reaction: A process which releases warmth into the surroundings.lattice energy: The amount of energy released upon formation of a crystalline ionic solid from gaseous ions.

Definition of Lattice Energy

Lattice energy is an calculation of the bond toughness in ionic compounds. The is characterized as the heat of development for ions of opposite charge in the gas phase to combine into an ionic solid. Together an example, the lattice power of salt chloride, NaCl, is the power released as soon as gaseous Na+ and also Cl– ions come with each other to type a lattice of alternate ions in the NaCl crystal.

extNa^+ (g) + extCl^- (g) ightarrow extNaCl (s) ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Delta H=-787.3 ext kJ/mol

The negative sign that the energy is indicative of an exothermic reaction.

Alternatively, lattice power can be assumed of as the energy required to different a mole of one ionic solid into the gaseous form of its ion (that is, the turning back of the reaction displayed above).

NaCl Crystalline Lattice: Sodium ion (Na+) and chloride(Cl–) ions, portrayed in purple and also green respectively, alternating in the decision lattice of hard NaCl.

Alternatively, lattice energy can be assumed of together the power required to different a mole of one ionic solid into the gaseous form of its ions (that is, the reverse of the reaction presented above).

Lattice energy cannot be figured out experimentally because of the an obstacle in isolating gaseous ions. The power value can be approximated using the Born-Haber cycle, or it deserve to be calculate theoretically with an electrostatic check of the crystal structure.

Factors affect Lattice Energy

In 1918, Born and Lande gift the following model for lattice energy:

E = - frac N_AMz^+z^-e^24 pi epsilon_o r_o (1-frac 1n)

In this equation, NA is Avogadro’s constant; M is the Madelung constant, which counts on the decision geometry; z+ is the charge variety of the cation; z– is the charge variety of the anion; e is the elementary fee of the electron; n is the Born exponent, a characteristic of the compressibility the the solid; epsilon _o is the permittivity of totally free space; and also r0 is the street to the closest ion.

This version emphasizes two main components that add to the lattice power of an ionic solid: the fee on the ions, and also the radius, or size, that the ions. The impact of those determinants is:

as the charge of the ion increases, the lattice energy increasesas the size of the ion increases, the lattice energy decreases

Lattice energies are additionally important in predicting the solubility that ionic solids in H2O. Ionic link with smaller sized lattice energies tend to be much more soluble in H2O.

Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe charge on the cations and also anions in one ionic compound deserve to be figured out by the lose or acquire of valence electrons crucial in bespeak to accomplish stable, noble gas electronic configurations.The variety of cations and anions the are linked in an ionic link is the simplest ratio of entirety integers that can be linked to reach electrical neutrality.The cation comes before the anion in both the written kind and the formula.Key Termsnoble gas: any type of of the facets of group 18 the the routine table, which room monatomic and, with very restricted exceptions, inert, or non-reactive.electrically neutral: A net fee of zero, i m sorry occurs when an atom or molecule/compound has actually no excess or deficit of electrons.empirical formula: The easiest whole-number proportion between elements in a formula that a compound.polyatomic ion: one ion written of numerous atoms.

Ionic Compounds

An ionic shortcut is developed through the deliver of one or much more valence electrons, commonly from a steel to a non-metal, which produces a cation and also an anion that room bound with each other by one attractive electrostatic force. On a macroscopic scale, ionic compounds, together as salt chloride (NaCl), form a crystalline lattice and are solids at normal temperatures and also pressures.

Crystalline Lattice: sodium chloride crystal lattice

The fee on the cations and also anions is identified by the number of electrons forced to attain stable noble gas digital configurations. The ionic composition is then defined by the need that the resulting compound be electrically neutral overall.

For example, to integrate magnesium (Mg) and also bromine (Br) to obtain an ionic compound, we first note the digital configurations of these atoms (valence level in shown in italics):

Mg: 1s22s22p63s2

Br: 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p5

In stimulate to accomplish noble gas configurations, the magnesium atom requirements to shed its 2 valence electrons, when the bromine atom, which has 7 valence electrons, requires one added electron to to fill its outer shell. Therefore, because that the resulting link to it is in neutral, two bromine anions must combine with one magnesium cation to kind magnesium bromide (MgBr2). In addition, though any type of ratio the 2 bromine atom to 1 magnesium atom will accomplish the two needs above, the formula for ionic compound is typically presented as the empirical formula, or the most basic whole-number ratio of atom with confident integers.

Note that the cation constantly precedes the anion both in written type and in formulas. In the written form, while the cation name is typically the same as the element, the suffix of single-atom anions is adjusted to –ide, as in the case of salt chloride. If the anion is a polyatomic ion, that suffix have the right to vary, however is frequently either –ate or –ite,as in the cases of sodium phosphate and also calcium nitrite, depending on the identification of the ion.

More examples:

lithium fluoride: Li+ and also F– incorporate to type LiFcalcium chloride: Ca2+ and Cl– combine to kind CaCl2iron (II) oxide: Fe2+ and also O2- incorporate to form FeOaluminum sulfide: Al3+ and also S2- incorporate to kind Al2S3sodium sulfate: Na+ and also SO42- incorporate to form Na2SO4ammonium phosphate: NH4+ and also PO43- incorporate to form (NH4)3PO4potassium chlorite: K+ and also ClO2– combine to kind KClO2

Video Summary

Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonding is presented together the finish transfer that valence electrons, commonly from a steel to a non-metal.In reality, electron thickness remains shared in between the constituent atoms, definition all bonds have actually some covalent character.The ionic or covalent nature that a shortcut is determined by the family member electronegativities that the atoms involved.Key Termspolar covalent bond: A covalent link that has a partial ionic personality to it, as a result of the distinction in electronegativity between the two bonding atoms.electronegativity: A measure up of the tendency of one atom to attract electrons to itself.covalent character: The partial sharing of electrons between atoms that have an ionic bond.

Ionic vs Covalent Bonding

Chemical link are frequently classified through the bonds between constituent atoms. There space multiple kinds of attractive forces, including covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds. Ionic bonding models are normally presented as the complete loss or obtain of one or an ext valence electron from a steel to a nonmetal, bring about cations and anions that are organized together by attractive electrostatic forces.


Ionic bonding: The development of an ionic bond in between lithium and also fluorine to type LiF.

Example that a polar covalent bond: as soon as a carbon atom develops a bond through fluorine, they share a pair of electrons. However, due to the fact that fluorine is much more highly electronegative 보다 carbon, it attractive that shared electron pair closer to itself and thus create an electric dipole. The small letter greek delta written over the atoms is supplied to show the existence of partial charges. This link is considered to have attributes of both covalent and ionic bonds.

In reality, the bond between these atom is more facility than this model illustrates. The bond created between any kind of two atom is not a completely ionic bond. Every bonding interactions have actually some covalent character because the electron thickness remains shared in between the atoms. The level of ionic versus covalent character of a link is determined by the distinction in electronegativity between the constituent atoms. The larger the difference, the an ext ionic the nature of the bond. In the traditional presentation, bonds room designated as ionic once the ionic element is higher than the covalent aspect of the bond. Binding that autumn in between the 2 extremes, having actually both ionic and covalent character, room classified together polar covalent bonds. Together bonds are thought of as consisting that partially charged optimistic and an adverse poles.

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Though ionic and covalent character stand for points along a continuum, this designations room frequently beneficial in understanding and also comparing the macroscopic properties of ionic and covalent compounds. For example, ionic compounds typically have higher boiling and melting points, and they are likewise usually much more soluble in water than covalent compounds.