Definition

A kidney rock is a solid mass consisted of of tiny crystals. One or much more stones can be in the kidney or ureter at the very same time.

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Alternative Names

Renal calculi; Nephrolithiasis; Stones - kidney; Calcium oxalate - stones; Cystine - stones; Struvite - stones; Uric acid - stones; Urinary lithiasis

Causes


This computer animation begins with an front watch of the urinary tract and continues v the formation of kidney stones shown in a cut-section of the kidney. Severities that kidney stones are depicted, demonstrating various degrees of urine obstruction.


Kidney stones are common. Some types run in families. They regularly occur in premature birth infants.

There room different varieties of kidney stones. The reason of the problem depends ~ above the kind of stone.

Stones can kind when urine contains too lot of certain substances that kind crystals. These crystals can develop into stones over weeks or months.

Calcium stones are most common. They room most likely to happen in men in between ages 20 to 30. Calcium can incorporate with various other substances to form the stone.Oxalate is the most typical of these. Oxalate is current in certain foods such together spinach. The is likewise found in vitamin C supplements. Diseases of the tiny intestine increase your danger for these stones.

Calcium stones have the right to also kind from combining through phosphate or carbonate.

Other types of stones include:

Cystine stones can form in human being who have cystinuria. This disorder operation in families. The affects both men and women.Struvite stones room mostly discovered in males or ladies who have repeated urinary street infections. These stones can prosper very large and can block the kidney, ureter, or bladder.Uric mountain stones are more common in guys than in women. Castle can occur with gout or chemotherapy.Other substances, together as details medicines, also can type stones.
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The biggest risk factor for kidney stones is not drinking sufficient fluids. Kidney stones are much more likely to occur if you make much less than 1 liter (32 ounces) of urine a day.

Symptoms

You might not have symptoms till the stones move down the tubes (ureters) with which urine empties into your bladder. Once this happens, the stones have the right to block the flow of urine out of the kidneys.

The main symptom is severe pain the starts and also stops suddenly:

Pain might be felt in the belly area or side of the back.Pain might move come the groin area (groin pain), testicles (testicle pain) in men, and labia (vaginal pain) in women.

Other symptoms deserve to include:

Abnormal urine colorBlood in the urineChillsFeverNausea and vomiting

Exams and also Tests

The health treatment provider will do a physics exam. The belly area (abdomen) or back might feeling sore.

Tests that might be excellent include:

Blood test to examine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, and electrolyte levelsKidney function testsUrinalysis to watch crystals and look because that red blood cells in urineExamination the the stone to determine the kind
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Stones or a blockage can be watched on:

Abdominal CT scan abdominal x-raysIntravenous pyelogram (IVP)Kidney ultrasoundRetrograde pyelogram

Treatment

Treatment relies on the kind of rock and the severity of your symptoms.

Kidney stones that are small most often pass with your system on their own.

Your urine need to be strained for this reason the stone can be saved and tested.Drink at the very least 6 come 8 glasses of water per day to create a huge amount that urine. This will help the stone pass.Pain can be really bad. Over-the-counter pain medicines (for example, ibuprofen and naproxen), either alone or together with narcotics, can be very effective.

Some civilization with severe pain indigenous kidney stones should stay in the hospital. You may need to gain fluids v an IV right into your vein.

For some types of stones, her provider may prescribe medication to avoid stones from forming or help breakdown and eliminate the material that is leading to the stone. This medicines can include:

Allopurinol (for uric mountain stones)Antibiotics (for struvite stones)Diuretics (water pills)Phosphate solutionsSodium bicarbonate or sodium citrateWater pills (thiazide diuretics)Tamsulosin to relax the ureter and help the stone pass

Surgery is often needed if:

The stone is too big to pass on its own.The rock is growing.The stone is blocking to pee flow and causing an infection or kidney damage.The pain can not be controlled. 
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Today, many treatments room much less invasive 보다 in the past.

Lithotripsy is offered to remove stones slightly smaller sized than one fifty percent an customs (1.25 centimeters) that are located in the kidney or ureter. It uses sound or shock tide to break up stones right into tiny fragments. Then, the stone fragments leave the body in the urine. The is also called extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy or ESWL.Procedures carry out by happen a distinct instrument through a little surgical cut in her skin on your earlier and right into your kidney or ureters are offered for huge stones, or as soon as the kidney or surrounding locations are mistakenly formed. The rock is gotten rid of with a pipe (endoscope).Ureteroscopy might be provided for stones in the reduced urinary tract. A laser is offered to break up the stone.Rarely, open surgery (nephrolithotomy) may be needed if other methods do not work or are not possible.

Talk to her provider around what treatment options may work for you.

You will need to take self-care steps. Which measures you take count on the kind of rock you have, however they may include:

Drinking extra water and other liquidsEating an ext of part foods and also cutting ago on various other foodsTaking medicines to help prevent stonesTaking drugs to aid you pass a rock (anti-inflammatory drugs, alpha-blockers)

Outlook (Prognosis)

Kidney stones space painful, but most the the time deserve to be removed from the human body without resulting in lasting damage.

Kidney stones frequently come back. This occurs more often if the reason is no found and also treated.

You room at hazard for:

Urinary tract infectionKidney damages or scarring if therapy is delayed for too lengthy

Possible Complications

Complication that kidney stones may incorporate the obstruction that the ureter (acute unilateral obstructive uropathy).

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When to call a clinical Professional

Call your provider if you have symptoms of a kidney stone:

Severe ache in your back or side that will certainly not go awayBlood in your urineFever and chillsVomitingUrine that smells bad or watch cloudyA burning feeling once you urinate

If you have actually been diagnosed with blockage native a stone, passage have to be confirmed either by catch in a strainer throughout urination or through follow-up x-ray. Being pain totally free does not confirm that the rock has passed.

Prevention

If you have actually a background of stones:

Drink many of fluids (6 come 8 glasses that water per day) to create enough urine.You may need to take medicine or make changes to her diet because that some types of stones.Your provider may want to execute blood and also urine tests to assist determine the appropriate prevention steps.